General Assembly Debates the Future of Human Security

human-securityThe President of the General Assembly convened an open debate to “reflect on our perspectives on human security, safety and freedom”. The Deputy Secretary-General opened the debate by urging states to put human security at the center of the future development framework. He was followed by Professor Gasper, who defined the human security approach as a set of language for describing security challenges and highlighted the “human-centric, comprehensive, context-specific and prevention-based” nature of the approach. Mr. Alia elaborated on this point by stating the holistic human security policies of his country, Benin, which provide for basic human needs such as education, AIDS prevention and child and maternal healthcare. He added that these basic provisions are enablers of state-building, and cited the example of literate citizens registering their identity to practice their full rights of citizenship. Ms. Dicapo highlighted the importance of members’ contribution in continuing the UN system’s promotion of the human security approach. The debate continued with Professor Pulhin who explained how the approach should be applied to alleviate the effects on migration and conflicts brought about by climate change. Ms. Keita, quoting the example of empowered Malian women in the nation’s reconciliation, called for more participation from civil society in applying the approach.

State parties speaking in the debate, including the EU, Slovenia, Japan, Costa Rica and South Africa, supported the UN’s work in promoting human security. Japan urged the Secretary-General to further mainstream the approach in the work of UN agencies and the SDGs. Brazil said that to prevent the approach from being only a set of rhetoric, the international community must also consider how it can be applied to contemporary challenges such as food security and large-scale surveillance. While Russia supported the approach, she believed that it is only the national governments that should decide how to implement it.

Meeting Title: UN General Assembly Thematic Debate: “Responding to the opportunities and challenges of the 21st Century: Human Security and the post-2015 development agenda”
Speakers: H.E. Mr. John W. Ashe, President of the United Nations General Assembly; H.E. Mr. Jan Eliasson, Deputy Secretary-General; Professor Des Gasper, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam; Ms. Sonia Dicapo, Chair of the Advisory Group of the UN Trust Fund for Human Security; Professor Juan Pulhin, University of the Philippines; Ms. Oulie Keita, Director of Programs Freedom House, Board member of WANEP Mali.
Location: Trusteeship Council Chamber, United Nations Headquarters
Date: 18th June, 2014
Written By WIT representative: Harrison Chung
Edited by WIT Representative: Marli Kasdan

Early Childhood Development – Essential in the Post 2015 Development Agenda

Today at the United Nations, the twelfth session of the Open Working Group on Sustainable Development commenced. It marks a weeklong platform for debate on the methods of work of the Rio+20 outcome document, including developing modalities to ensure the full involvement of relevant stakeholders and expertise from civil society, the scientific community and the United Nations system.
A special event co-hosted primarily by Colombia, Ecuador and Italy aimed to strongly move forward in the approach to ensuring early child development as an important indicator to drive human development. H.E María Mejía stated that 6.6 million children die around the world each year due to preventable diseases and highlighted that “early age, thus, becomes the only time one can shape success for a society”. Ms. Cecilia Vaca further emphasized the political importance of early child development. Using the 2008 Ecuadorian constitution (that prioritizes the state, society and family) as the prime example, she urged member states to establish a developmental path within their judicial frameworks that recognizes the rights of the child to education and healthcare above all.

ImageH.E Sebastiano Cardi emphasized the significance of maternal healthcare. He posited that children’s health is closely linked to and dependent upon the healthcare instruments prevalent in countries for expecting mothers. Mr. James Wolfensohn strongly upheld the notion that unless governments of developing countries deal with young people, their health and education, there can be no future for the society.

All panelists were in tandem that child development and maternal healthcare are quintessential prerequisites to sustainable human development. The event concluded by giving a sense of possibility that this challenge, with the continued effort of member states, civil society and other stakeholders, can become every child’s reality.

 

 

The Foundation for Sustainable Human Development for 2015 and Beyond was a special event that coincided with the 12th session of the Open Working Group on Sustainable Development (OWG). The event aimed to push forward the importance of child development in achieving sustainable human development.

 

Meeting Title: “Foundation for Sustainable Human Development for 2015 and Beyond”
Moderator: Ms. Pia Britto, Global Head of Early Childhood Development, UNICEF
Speakers: H.E María Emma Mejía, Permanent Representative of Colombia; H.E Sebastiano Cardi, Permanent Representative of Italy; Ms. Cecilia Vaca, Minister of Social Development, Ecuador; Mr. James Wolfensohn, former World Bank President; Mr. Lu Mai, Secretary-General, China Development Research Foundation; Ms. Tessa Jowell, MP, Member of United Kingdom Parliament; Ms. Louise Zimanyi, Executive Director, Consultative Group on Early Childhood Care and Development; and
Date: 16 June 2014
Location:
Conference Room 2United Nations Headquarters, New York
Written by WIT Representative:
Apurv Gupta
Edited by WIT Representative: Marli Kasdan

UNICEF discusses Developmental Challenges and Human Rights in Context of CRPD

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A panel of five speakers gathered at the Henry Labouisse Hall of the UNICEF House, to discuss and respond to the overlooked development challenges. Ms. Yannis stated that one in seven human beings has a disability out of 7.8 billion people in the world. People with disabilities are also the single largest population excluded from school. Mr. Marrit followed by highlighting the purpose of having the legally binding convention to promote, protect and ensure the equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by all persons with disabilities. It also aims at promoting respect for their inherent dignity.

Mr. Paul then summarized his thoughts towards eradicating the extreme poverty and hunger by three approaches. First, promote equality in opportunities, including access to education and health. Second, introduce good governance by encouraging the right of freedom and rule of law. Third, integrate respect for all human right as cross cutting throughout the whole SDG. Following, Mr. Nicholas, senior advisor of UNICEF, briefly outlined what UNICEF is doing to ensure that no one is left behind and also emphasised the human rights and rights of person with disabilities. He mentioned that the principle of leave no one behind, has emerged as one of the key foundations of the post-2015 Development Agenda.

Further, Mr. Vinicius emphasised the significance of investments in a child’s well-being and their rights, as the most effective way to secure a more equitable, peaceful and sustainable world. He concluded his speech in three words: empowerment, protection, discrimination. Ms. Diane then made very powerful points concerning language, visibility and cost. She expressed, how uncomfortable she feels when people named them as a part of a vulnerable group. She ended her speech by encouraging more young people to join the CRPD committee, in order to achieve the goals as part of the post-2015 Development Agenda.

Meeting Title: The intersection of human rights and development within the context of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)
Speakers: Yannis Vardakastanis, President of European Disability Forum; Maarit Kohonen Sheriff, Deputy Head of Office OHCHR; Paul Gulleik Larsen, Senior Advisor for the Agenda of the Nor Wee General; Nicholas Alipui, Director of Program and UNICEF Senior Advisor; Vinicius Pinheiro; Diane Mulligan, Member of UN CRPD Committee, Representative of IDBC and CBM
Location: Henry Labouisse Hall, UNICEF House, New York.
Date: 10 June 2014
Written By WIT representative: Samantha Kong
Edited by WIT representative: Sophia Griffiths-Mark 

Forum on Youth 2014

In accordance with UN General Assembly resolution 68/1, the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) should further promote the integration of youth into its deliberations, building on the past positive experiences of informal youth forums.

From the 2-3, June 2014 the United Nations was home to youth delegates, representatives from the Children and Youth Major Groups, youth representatives from Member States, including those from National Youth Councils, representatives of regional youth organisations as well as youth-led and youth focused organisations and networks, including those in consultative status with ECOSOC.

The aim of the Youth Forum was to bring the voice of young people into discussion on addressing the challenges for meeting the Millennium Development Goals and shaping the post-2015 development agenda. During the opening ceremony, Secretary-General Ban Ki Moon remarked, “There is a world of need out there, but also a world of opportunity. So I urge you to keep doing your part. Keep showing your leadership as global citizens” while urging attendees to “keep making a difference”. The Envoy on Youth, Ahmad Alhendawi spotlighted five thematic areas; education, employment and entrepreneurship, health, peace and security, and governance  as the greatest concern that threaten youth development in nation states. These areas were condensed after engaging more than 1.2 million young people through the My World 2015 survey and a crowdsourcing platform convened by UN agencies and partners. World Information Transfer’s DPI Representative, Apurv Gupta, was ranked 5 in the overall community, sharing recommendations on all thematic issues.

It was observed at the forums conclusion that employment was the key area young people wanted world leaders to focus on during the construction of the post-2015 development agenda. Currently, 75 million youth are unemployed, and more than 600 million jobs need to be generated globally in the life span of the new development agenda to absorb current unemployment levels and provide jobs to new labour market entrants.

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Meeting Title: ECOSOC Youth Forum 2014
Speakers: H.E. Ban Ki Moon, Secretary-General, United Nations, H.E. Martin Sajdik (Austria), President of the Economic and Social Council, H.E. Csaba Kőrösi, Permanent Representative of Hungary to the United Nations and Co-Chair, Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goal, Mr. Ahmad Alhendawi, United Nations Secretary-General’s Envoy for Youth, Mr. Wu Hongbo, Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs and Youth Representatives.
Location: United Nations HQ, Conference Room 1 (CB)
Date: 3 June 2014
Written by WIT representatives:  Apurv Gupta and Aslesha Dhillon

Private and Public Sector Collaboration for Renewable Energy Solutions

During the Sustainable Energy For All Forum a side event was held on forming partnerships between the private and public sector in order to find renewable energy solutions. Beginning the discussion, Ms. Eibs-Singer spoke about opportunities for the public and private sector to collaborate using public sector instruments at the policy level and private sector investment at the market level in order to invest in renewable energy.

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A more direct integration of the public and private sector is necessary for successful renewable energy projects to take off. However, Ms. Eibs-Singer pointed out that a potential problem in working together is how much slower progress can occur in the public sphere than in the private , and that the two need to reconcile this problem in order to effectively work together.

Mr. Ford, the Managing Director of Accenture (one of the world’s largest consulting and technology companies), then spoke about Accenture’s nexus with civil society, corporations, and donors, and how these partnerships can be used to find renewable energy solutions. Mr. Ford also mentioned Accenture’s work in renewable energy, and how this relates to education, health, and capacity building for development.

The Rockefeller Foundation gave a statement about the need to build resilience for disadvantaged communities and cities, and to make economies more inclusive; allowing more opportunities for participation. The key to this, he said, is energy access from renewable sources. Access to energy is necessary for withstanding climate change, health pandemics, and for having access to information, and is also fundamental for participation in the modern economy. Government capacity, the skills of the private sector, as well as money from funders is needed to find renewable energy solutions.

Mr. Fast then followed up this statement with an example of Accenture’s project in Northern Uganda, which helps local villagers use solar energy more efficiently. Accenture created this project with the help of local schools and businesses. To close, Mr. Rubin a professor at University of Pennsylvania, talked about his project in Zimbabwe, which, with the help from universities, private sector donations, and public sector infrastructure, produced an innovative solution to efficiently refrigerate vaccines for children by using the electric infrastructure from already existing cell phone towers to power the refrigerators.

Meeting: Energy Access for Development Impact: How Can the Private and Public Sector Collaborate on Renewable Energy Solutions?
Speakers: Ms. Christine Eibs-Singer; Senior Advisor, SE4ALL; Mr. Roger Ford, Managing Director, Accenture Development Partnerships; Mr. Zia Khan, Vice President for Initiatives and Strategy, The Rockefeller Foundation; Mr. Scott Fast, Executive Director, Accenture Foundation; Mr. Harvey Rubin, Professor of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania and Director, Energize the Chain
Location: United Nations HQ, New York, Conference Room A
Date: 4 June 2014
Written By WIT representative: Marli Kasdan

Urbanisation a transformative tool for Sustainable Development

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This week the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) is hosting a segment on the integration of sustainable development focusing on the role of Urbanisation. H.E. Vladimir Drobnjak, Vice-President of ECOSOC, expressed that urbanisation has and will play a transformative role to meeting economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. H.E. Drobnjak explained that cities are innovative spaces, which drive social change and provide opportunities that can lift populations out of poverty. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon emphasised that expanding government capacities and planning urbanisation is critical to ensure that policies and frameworks create equitable and constructive environments.

Urbanisation leads to higher wages, provides basic infrastructure and services, while also stimulating the private sector that creates jobs and new stakeholders to provide public goods. As African nations become more urbanized people can be empowered to build secure futures. President Paul Kagame discussed his own nation Rwanda whom, twenty years after genocide, continue searching for solutions to repair the social dimensions of everyday life. President Kagame noted the capacity of urbanization to repair and unify his people whom are moving to cities faster than ever before in search of a higher quality of life.

Vice-President of Colombia, H.E. Angelino Garzon, insisted that the future agenda must not discriminate against the poor as part of the problem but instead include low-income workers as part of the solution. H.E. Garzon reminded states leaders of their duty to provide populations with education, safe water, basic sanitation, transport, a healthy environment, decent work and access to land.

H.E. Isabelle Picco, Vice-President of the general assembly raised concerns for the effects on climate change, as 70% of global greenhouse gas emissions are concentrated in cities. Mr. Joan Clos challenged governments to utilize innovative abilities towards energy strategies, ensure sustainable urbanisation and stimulate environmental protection alongside development.

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Meeting Title: Economic and Social Council’s opening of the Integration segment focusing on Urbanization
Speakers: Vice-President of the Economic and Social Council, H.E. Vladimir Drobnjak, Vice-President of the General Assembly H.E. Isabelle Picco, Secretary-General of the United Nations H.E. Ban Ki-moon, President of the Republic of Rwanda H.E. Paul Kagame, Vice-President of the Republic of Colombia H.E. Angelino Garzon, H.E. Michael Bloomberg of United Nations Special Envoy for Cities and Climate Change, and Executive Director of UN-Habitat Mr. Joan Clos
Date: 27 May 2014
Location: United Nations HQ, New York
Written by WIT representative: Sophia Griffiths-Mark

Images: CBD of Hong Kong and Melbourne 

Invest in Women

United Nations, New York Headquarters, 4 March 2014

Women’s Empowerment and equality has been an initiative at the United Nations since the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), in 1979. Since then, many efforts have been made, but women are still at a much greater disadvantage to education, work, independence, and positions of power, just to name a few. The meeting held at the start of the 3 weeks focused on women’s empowerment was about how to take steps in the private sector to invest in women as entrepreneurs. Many different speakers shared insight from their experience and industries, a call for responsibility and action on all fronts was echoed into the afternoon.

Carolyn Buck Luce, the days moderator, explained the shifts currently taking place, lending a hand to women’s empowerment, and gender balance. “Executives are realizing that it’s up to us, there is a tipping point emerging where companies will need to embrace a longer term view and embrace the possibility that they could be a unique engine for sustainability and equality in the world.” Ambassador Melanne Verveer followed with the understanding that women invest their earned money back into the family, only enhancing the family unit and the success those children experience. “Women may be victimized,” said the ambassador, “but are not victims.”

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In Africa, 43% less women than men have access to the internet. She Will Connect, launched by Intel in 2013, puts emphasis on targeted countries to make internet more accessible to women who are completely disconnected. It is initiatives like this in the private sector, among others that become game changers for women everywhere. Another example is The Coca-Cola Company, who started the 5by20 movement, to empower 5 million female entrepreneurs globally by 2020. The majority of women find themselves in the bottom line of companies pyramids. Entrepreneurs and industries have started businesses training and learning programs for women to gain skills and agency in the industry that has exploited them for so long. Erika Karp, the CEO of an investment firm focused on creating sustainable solutions for capitalism, had a compelling moment during the panel. She stated that we must have synergy with all of the issues: climate change, sustainable energy, women’s empowerment, access to water; all of these issues must come together to guide the world because the time for change is right now.

Meeting Title: International Women’s Day 2014: Turning Inspiration into Action: Next Steps for the Private Sector to Empower Women Globally

Key Speakers: Carolyn Buck Luce (Managing Partner-Imaginal Labs), Robert Orr (Assistant Secretary General for Strategic Planning), John McKernan (President-U.S. Chamber of Commerce), Ambassador Melanne Verveer (Executive Director-Institute for Peace), Chelsea Clinton (Vice Chair-Clinton Foundation), Jane Nelson (Director of Corporate Social Responsibility Initiative), Pierre Börjesson (Senior Sustainability Specialist- H&M), Dotti Hatcher (Executive Director- P.A.C.E. Global Initiatives), Diane Melley (V.P. Global Citizenship Initiatives- IBM), Charlotte Oades (Women’s Economic Empowerment- The Coca-Cola Company), Aman Singh (Editorial Director- CSRwire.com), Priya Agrawal (Executive Director- Merk for Mothers), Sharon D’Agostino (V.P. Corporate Citizenship-J&J), Leith Greenslade (Vice-Chair- Office of UN Special Envoy for Financing the Health Millennium Development Goals), Rebecca Fries (Director- Value for Women), Dr. Jeff Lundy (Manager-Research- Corporate Citizenship Center- U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation), Jeannette Ferran Astorga (V.P. Corporate Social Responsibility, ANN Inc.), Michelle Greene (Head of Corporate Responsibility-NYSE EuroNext), Mary Ellen Iskenderian (President and CEO-Women’s World Banking), Erika Karp (CEO-Cornerstone Capital Group), Kara Valikai (Director-corporate Citizenship Center- U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation), Dr. Vishakha Desai (President Emerita), Sahba Sobhani (Acting Programme Manager), Marc DeCourcey (Executive Director- U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation)

Written by WIT Representative: Stephanie Harris

“Be globally literate and globally sensitive, the time is truly now!” -Dr. Vishakha Desai

The Contribution of Sound Management of Chemicals and Waste to Sustainable Development

United Nations, New York Headquarters, 28 February 2014

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) organized a panel discussion on the “Contribution of Sound Management of Chemicals and Waste to Sustainable Development.” The meeting provided practical examples of sound chemical and waste management in developing countries, including Uruguay and Philippines.

Mr. Cuna, Director of the Environmental Management Bureau, Philippines, said that his country has undertaken a number of initiatives on toxic substances and hazardous waste management. Implementing at least six environmental laws, the Environmental Management Bureau of Philippines is introducing the best environmental practices in fossil fuel-fired utilities and industrial broilers. The Bureau is also using non-combustion technology on the destruction of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). With the help of UNEP, Mr. Cuna said, Philippines has been able come up with a national strategic plan for the phase-out of mercury to protect human health and environment. He emphasized on the need of rigorous implementation of environmental laws.

Mr. Richard Fuller, Founder and CEO of Blacksmith Institute, said that the poorest bear the burden as wealthier countries have shifted manufacturing and mining overseas. As many as 200 million people are exposed to hazardous chemicals in these poorer countries. Mr. Fuller emphasized on focusing on prevention before remediation. He said that better implementation of tighter pollution-control laws in developing countries will not only improve the environment and reduce human health risks, but it will also help fuel growth and sustainable development.

Ms. Fatoumata Keita-Ouane, Head, Chemicals Branch, UNEP, said that “chemicals and waste” is moving from being a, “technical issue,” to a significant, “policy and economic issue,” to all countries and to the sustainable development agenda. She said that chemicals and wastes are mentioned in several focus areas in the draft released by the co-chairs of the Open Working Group. Mr. Werner Obermeyer, Senior External Relations Officer, WHO, said that health is both an input to and an output of sustainable development. It is therefore, he said, an indicator of progress. Better health can result from green economic strategies, but only if health is considered in the planning and implementation

Meeting Title: Panel discussion on “The contribution of sound management of chemicals and waste to sustainable development – A perspective from the national level” (organized by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP))

Speakers: Mr. Fernando Lugris, Ambassador, Deputy Director General for Political Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Uruguay; Mr. Juan Miguel T. Cuna, Director, Environmental Management Bureau, Department of Environment and Natural Resources of the Philippines; Mr. Richard Fuller, Founder and CEO, Blacksmith Institute; Ms. Fatoumata Keita-Ouane, Head, Chemicals Branch, United Nations Environment Programme; Mr. Werner Obermeyer, Senior External Relations Officer, New York Office, World Health Organization.

Written By: Shan Cheema, WIT Representative

 

Intellectual Property Rights And Access to Medicine

United Nations, New York Headquarters, 19 February 2014

During a meeting on intellectual property and access to medicine, issues such as trade, HIV, responsibility and the ethics of patent laws were discussed. James Love, the director of Knowledge Ecology International, a NGO that deals with intellectual property on public health, cyberlaw, and competition, spoke about the differences between a research and development approach and a intellectual property approach. The current AIDS drugs, Mr. Love explained, are more heavily patented than ever. The existence of some organizations and programs, like The Global Fund, have allowed for new markets in even the poorest countries, and these new markets have also pushed more patents. Mr. Love emphasized that the purpose of trade agreements is not to increase prices or expand patent laws, but to sponsor research and development. He asked, “How can groups promote the efforts of research and development and detach it from the price of those drugs?” Mr. Love proposed ideas for how to rectify the current situation by incentivizing research and development, and eliminating patents for HIV drugs, at least in America. 

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Yawo Tenou, a representative of UNDP, shared his own experiences growing up in Botswana, a poor country severely affected by AIDS and a lack of access to medicine. He described many experiences where friends would loose both of their parents to AIDS and then be sent off to distant family, unknown would be the continuation of their education or livelihood. Mr. Tenou described the contextualization of intellectual property rights and how they impede on access to healthcare, proposing a balance for international trade laws to not affect treatment of diseases. Citing the Venice Statue of 1474 that rewards inventors and retains the right of government to act in the publics interest, Mr. Tenou advocated for generic competition to drive price down and allow access to higher quality treatment. Eleven out of the twelve treatments for non-communicable diseases approved by the FDA, cost over 100,000 USD per year per patient in the USA. The UNDP provides policy and technical assistance in the countries that need help accessing treatment and medicine. 

Meeting Title: Intellectual Property and Access to Medicines 

Key Speakers: Jean-Francis R. Zinsou (UN Ambassador of Benin), UNAIDS representative, James Love (Director of Knowledge Ecology International), Yawo Tenou (UNDP), Dr. Harry Ostrou (Researcher and geneticist)

Written By WIT Representative: Stephanie Harris 

Poverty, Inequality, and Women’s Rights: They All Must Be Addressed, But How?

United Nations, New York Headquarter, 6 February 2014

Professor Ocampo gave the first presentation, in which he spoke about income inequalities throughout the world. Inequality has two dimensions, inequality among countries, and inequality inside countries. Historically, free markets have allowed wealth inequalities to rise, and the state has historically stepped in to address this problem. In countries where the state hasn’t played that role, inequalities are very high. Inequality in that sense, is a choice of society: they can change the inequality if they adopt the correct changes.

Mr. Moreno spoke next and said that we rarely talk about inequalities in ability, and that it is something that needs to be addressed when we discuss development. He called on countries to create a policy that will include those with disabilities and allow them to participate socially, politically, and economically on the same level as everyone else. Mr. Moreno said that we cannot attain any goal unless we think holistically.

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Ms. Ameline was the final presenter, and she spoke about discrimination against women. She said that sustainable development will continue to be a dream unless the rights of women are realized. She stressed the importance of progress indicators by statistically analyzing the measurable impacts that are being made over time.

The representatives of Morocco, Bolivia, Peru and Mexico agreed that we should eradicate material poverty, but also spiritual poverty, such as racism, individualism, ageism, and others. We cannot work on the SDGs without acknowledging the human dimension. The representative of Japan asked, “What can the United Nations, through the SDG’s, do to change the inequalities in society, if the society has chosen those inequalities?” The representative of Indonesia was concerned about the kinds of domestic economic policy that can be used to address income inequality.

The floor was then opened for a general discussion. Benin said that although the world target for poverty reduction has been reached, 49% of the population of the LDCs still live in extreme poverty, lacking access to critical education, health and transportation infrastructure. Guinea said that there needs to be a framework that addresses inequalities in governance, wealth, gender, and education.

The executive director of the ITC, the International Trade Commission was given the floor, sharing that we need to facilitate the entrance of women into the workplace more than we already. Women are projected to be 30% of the workforce by 2020, and they reinvest 90% of their earnings back into their families, which improves quality of life. Therefore, the UN needs to craft a standalone goal relating to women’s rights and women’s empowerment.

Meeting Title: Sixth meeting of the Eighth Session of the General Assembly Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals

Key Speakers: Professor José Antonio Ocampo, Columbia University; Mr. Lenín Moreno, Secretary General’s Special Envoy on Disability and Accessibility; Ms. Nicole Ameline, Chair, Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women; Representatives of Bolivia speaking on behalf of the G77+China; Mexico; Japan; Indonesia; Peru; Morocco; Benin on behalf of the LDC’s; Guinea on behalf of the Africa Group; Executive Director of the ITC

Written by WIT Representative: Jacob Roth