From Rio+20 to Post-2015: Towards an Integrated and Universal Sustainable Development Agenda

unnamedThe second meeting of the High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development commenced today at the United Nations Headquarters. The theme for the forum this year is -“Achieving the Millennium Development Goals and charting the way for an ambitious post-2015 development agenda, including the sustainable development goals”.

His Excellency Sajdik, opened the meeting by highlighting the significant role of Rio+20 conference in establishing processes that have been working together towards the Post-2015 agenda. The international community, therefore, should aim to bring the working elements together to form an integrated development agenda that speaks universally of all the member state citizens around the world. Mr. Bapna identified three characteristics of sustainable development as absolutely crucial: (i) An integrated agenda that recognises the social, economic and environmental dimensions as equally important, (ii) A universal agenda to truly tackle emerging global challenges and (iii) A transformative agenda with focus on governance.

Mr. Körösi emphasised that sustainable development is a contract among generations and a political commitment between countries, aimed towards long term changes. It is imperative that we impose discipline in order to set out a working mechanism between goal setting, designing the implementation process and conducting it. With regards to the working mechanism, Mr. Patriota posited that the member states are expected to translate the roadmap provided by Rio+20 into the Post-2015 agenda through establishing effective institutions.

Ms. Frankinet stressed that sustainable development requires an integrated approach; all the working steps must be built on expertise and cooperation. Both the political class and the public must be willing to take the SDGs implementation at the national and international level. Mr. Bhattacharya added that this integration, which essentially means combining the three pillars of sustainable development, can be achieved by the inclusion of a fourth pillar called ‘governance’ that will bind the three pillars together.

Ms. Mlambo-Ngcuka drew attention to women empowerment and gender equality as being vital to achieving sustainable development. Women have been recognised as the enablers and beneficiaries of sustainable development goals and therefore, we cannot achieve integrated goals without considering gender equality.

Meeting Title: Moderated dialogue: “From Rio+20 to post-2015: towards an integrated and universal sustainable development agenda”
Panellists: His Excellency Martin Sajdik (Chair), President of the Economic and Social Council; Mr. Manish Bapna, Executive Vice-President and Managing Director, World Resources Institute; His Excellency Csaba Körösi, Permanent Representative of Hungary to the United Nations and Co-Chair of the Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals; Her Excellency Bénédicte Frankinet, Permanent Representative of Belgium to the United Nations; His Excellency Antonio de Aguiar Patriota, Permanent Representative of Brazil to the United Nations; Mr. Debapriya Bhattacharya, Distinguished Fellow, Centre for Policy Dialogue (Dhaka) and Chair of Southern Voice on Post-MDG International Development Goals; Ms. Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, Under-Secretary-General and Executive Director, United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women.
Date: 30 June 2014
Location: Trusteeship Council, United Nations Headquarters, New York
Written by WIT Representative: Nusrat Laskar
Edited by WIT Representative: Aslesha Dhillon

Second Meeting of the High Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development

high_level_political_forum_on_sustainable_developmentThe discussion assembles a panel of eminent scientists, policy makers, as well as senior UN officials, who will address how science is instrumental in ensuring the integration of the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. The second meeting of the High Level Political Forum (HLPF) on Sustainable Development commenced at the United Nations. A panel discussion that aimed to monitor the SDGs, build an effective review mechanism and strengthen science and policy networks was conducted as part of the negotiations.

Mr. Nebojsa Nakicenovic opened the discussion by stating that the SDGs were an aspirational and ambitious goal but with the right scientific and technical analysis they could be achievable. He highlighted the following four areas of interest that are crucial in writing the Sustainable Development Report for the Post-2015 agenda: Investments into institutions and niche markets, enhancing human capacity, learning and technology, deployment of system diffusions and conducting science based multi-stakeholder assessments.

H.E Csaba Körösi echoed similar points raised by Mr. Nebojsa Nakicenovic and Mr. Alexander Roehrl and stated that the scientific community has been involved with the SDGs since its inception. Scientists have been mastering the information and substance and are guiding the Open Working Group (OWG). However, he highlighted three focus areas for the scientific community that would accelerate the progress of the OWG. One, help setting indicators. Two, help testing the coherence of the system and three, report on system transformation as a whole. He concluded by stating that is was crucial to know, through tangible parameters, how much progress has already been made.

Ms.Tanya Abrahamse summed up the panel discussion by stressing upon the importance of accessibility of information and data. She posited that scientific evaluation should be presented in a manner that could be easily understood by local populations, which in turn would empower them to act upon that evidence.

Title: “Strengthening science-policy links for reviewing progress on sustainable development”
Organiser: International Council for Science (ICSU); UN DESA; UNEP
Speakers: Gordon McBean, President, International Council for Science; Nebojsa Nakicenovic, International Institute for Applied System Analysis; Alexander Roehrl, Division for Sustainable Development, DESA; H.E.Csaba Körösi, Co-Chair of the Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals; Elliot Harris, Director, UNEP New York Office; Tanya Abrahamse, CEO, South African National Biodiversity Institute
Date: 30 June 2014
Location: Conference Room 5 (NLB), UN Headquarters
Written By WIT Representative: Apurv Gupta
Edited by WIT Representative: Aslesha Dhillon

UN Agencies joining hands to bring about Sustainable Consumption and Production

part 1- SCP-circle-picIn recognizing the cross-cutting nature in implementing sustainable consumption and production (SCP), the 10YFP Framework for Sustainable Development convened a panel to inform the community of the progress of implementation in various sectors. Ms. Alvarez-Rivero and Mr. Arden-Clarke opened the discussion by stating that the three-pillared nature of sustainable development means that no one single UN agency can take on the enormous task of promoting SCP alone, and the inter-linkage of different aspects necessitates the need of sharing of best practices among UN agencies.

Mr. Hoballah began by giving an account of the 10YFP programmes, ranging from sustainable construction to public procurement. Ms. Brennen-Haylock detailed the Food and Agricultural Organization’s work in promoting food sustainability. She highlighted the universality of this aspect of SCP, such that the food sustainability achieved by developed countries improved the food security of developed and developing countries alike. Ms. Jensen spoke on the role of sustainable lifestyle and sustainable development education, which involves not only encouraging reduction of consumption but also the instilling of the idea of responsible citizenship. She said that in achieving this massive change in attitude, cultivation of critical thinking skills is required so that future students can fabricate their tailored responses to the consumption problems of their time. Mr. Chung added that in implementing SCP at regional level, sharing of best practices and policy proposals is necessary to allow economies of diverse backgrounds to tailor-make their own responses to sustainable development.

One major question from the floor is whether the link between sustainable production and consumption pattern and the idea of planetary boundary have been integrated in the framework’s work in promoting the SCP. The panelists stated that while the earlier concept is well integrated in their work, lack of political impetus means the latter is yet to be a dominant concept.

Meeting Title: One UN for Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP): joint action to implement the 10YFP agenda
Speakers: Ms. Birgitte Bryld Alvarez-Rivero, UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Co-Chair of the 10YFP Inter-Agency Coordination Group (IACG); Mr. Charles Arden-Clarke, Acting Head of the 10YFP Secretariat, United Nations Environment; Mr. Arab Hoballah, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Chief, SCP Branch; Ms. Sharon Brennen-Haylock, Director of FAO Liaison Office in New York Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Bringing Sustainable Food Systems in the 10YFP; Ms. Vibeke Jensen, Director of UNESCO New York Office, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); Mr. Rae Kwon Chung, Director, Environment and Development Division, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN ESCAP)
Location: Economic and Social Council Chamber, United Nations Headquarters
Date: 30 June 2014
Written By WIT Representative: Harrison Chung
Edited by WIT Representative: Aslesha Dhillon

High Level Political Forum: Harmonising Existing Measurement Efforts

image001A meeting was convened to discuss plans to harmonise existing measurement efforts under the High Level Political Forum’s (HLPF’s) current review function. Chair of the panel, Mr. Ullah opened by highlighting the immense opportunity provided by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to coordinate and subsequently align the goals and measurement methods at the private, national, and international levels. Currently, 80% of the post-2015 SDGs do not have measurement mechanisms in place.

Ms. Beishem started the dialogue by giving context to the HLPF’s current review function. At this moment, the HLPF resolution mandates that reporting be voluntary, state-led, and provide a platform for partnerships. But to finalize the remainder of review effort, and to attempt designing a framework for all countries to follow, a few things must fall into place. They need an efficient review in limited number of meeting days, secretariat services for preparation and follow up, ways to integrate existing reviews and report, and financial funds for less developed countries.

Mr. Greenfield added to the panel by challenging the audience to imagine a world where societal and business priorities were aligned, one where the purpose of markets would be to deliver our highest human priorities. He argued that the first step is to empower nations to start adopting measurements and goals beyond simple GDP levels, which seems to be the assessment used to evaluate a country’s world standing. Mr. Betrazzi closed the discussion by highlighting three avenues through which alignment of the national, international, and corporate sectors can be achieved. First, technical work is necessary to increase the linkage in methodologies. Next, a political element to put pressure on the corporate world. Finally, raising awareness through the SDGs about the importance of accurate and efficient measurements.

Meeting Title: Harmonising existing measurement efforts under the HLPF’s review function
Speakers: Marianne Beisheim, Global Issues, SWP; Pietro Bertrazzi, Manager Policy and Advocacy, GRI; Chair Farooq Ullah, Executived Director, Stakeholder Forum; Oliver Greenfield, Convenor, Green Economy Coalition
Location: United Nations HQ, Conference Room C
Date: 30 June 2014
Written By WIT Representative: Zachary Halliday
Edited by WIT Representative: Aslesha Dhillon

Means of Implementation of Sustainable Development

image18_266To trigger new partnerships and voluntary commitments, a moderated dialogue was conducted at the High-level Political Forum (HLPF) on “Means of Implementation for Sustainable Development”. “Ethical equation is inspired by vision of justice”, said Mr. Raymond in his opening speech. He highlighted the importance of justice in various aspects. Mr. Muhtar pointed out there was a need for a “quantum leap” in the resources that can be used and channelled. He also discussed the importance of focusing on country ownership of national development strategies and exploiting synergy across the various dimensions of development. Also, it requires a global and strengthened partnership to adopt policies and mobilize resource efficiently.”

Mr. Rachel said that the United Nations plays a leading role in bringing together finance and socioeconomics. He emphasized that creating a national enabling environment is paramount to ensure effective means of implementation. It includes financing, promoting trade and investment, developing capacity-building and fostering technology transfer. In light of that, the respect for human rights and the rule of law, including accountable institutions should also be included to ensure the implementation of the future agenda. Mr. Steve was concerned about the structures of capital markets are unsustainable.

Thus, AVIVA, had published a roadmap for harnessing capital markets to promote sustainable development. In addition, he suggested that governments should establish national legislative frameworks that require market participants to produce an integrated sustainability report. This would ensure national corporate government codes and promote capital market regulation effectively. The panelists conveyed three common key messages in triggering new partnerships and voluntary commitments. First, to ensure partnerships are fully inclusive and participatory, moving beyond consultations to comprehensive engagement. Second, it is vital to mandate economic, social and environmental safeguards in partnerships. Third, to expand the concept of public-private partnership to embrace cooperatives and solidarity economy enterprises.

Meeting Title: Moderated Dialogue “Means of implementation for Sustainable Development”
Speakers: Mr. Saner Raymond, International Relations & International Management Sciences Po, Paris & University of Basle, Switzerland; Mr. Mansur Muhtar, Co-Chair of the Intergovernmental Committee of Experts on Sustainable Development Financing; Mr. Rojas Claudio Rachel, Director for the Economic and Development Unit, Director General for Multilateral and Global Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Chile; Mr. Waygood Steve, Chief Responsible Investment Officer, AVIVA; Ms. Kantrow Louise, International Chamber of Commerce’s Permanent Representative to the UN (since 2007) and organizing partner for the Major Group of Business and Industry, International Chamber of Commerce
Location: Trusteeship Council, United Nations HQ, New York
Date: 30 June 2014
Written By WIT representative: Samantha Kong
Edited by WIT Representative: Aslesha Dhillon

New ways to provide food assistance

ImageTo encourage innovative means to provide food assistance to regions in need of humanitarian aid, Ambassador Patriota convened a panel discussion on this matter. In doing so, the Ambassador highlighted the Brazilian application of cash transfer to implement the “Bolsa Familia” safety-net programme as a way to motivate families to send children to school and to clinic check-ups.

In the context of short-term action, Mr. Mogwanja highlighted the difference between direct provision of food aid and cash-transfer style food assistance, the latter being preferable as it is a more economically sustainable tool. Mr. Janz stated that cash-transfer is a viable form of food assistance, as it pinpoints to the problem of lack of purchasing power of disaster victims without having crippled the local agricultural market by flooding the market with relief food. Mr. Janz elaborated on the benefit of cash-transfer food assistance, stating that it gives disaster victims dignity by giving them choices in food and enhances efficiency of aid by reducing the logistical cost of transporting food aid. Ms. Souza stated how the World Food Programme implemented the cash-transfer in conjunction with local purchase of relief material to further enhance food assistance’s positive impact to the local economy, a point which Ambassador Boureima echoed when detailing the “Nigerien feeds Nigerien” initiative in his country.

Speaking on behalf of the donors, Ms. Fink-Hooijer stated that the donor community in general support the cash-transfer initiative, but adopts a wait-and-see attitude when it comes to the effectiveness of large-scale implementation in disaster relief. Ambassador Shearman echoed this point, and added that he hopes future cash-transfer can be implemented in form of cash handout instead of voucher to further reduce its distortion of the local market.

Meeting Title: Cash Transfers, Local Purchases and Social Safety-Nets: Bridging the Divide between Assistance and Development
Speakers: Martin Mogwanja, Deputy Executive Director, UNICEF; H.E. Ambassador Boubacar Boureima, Permanent Representative of Niger to the United Nations; Darana Souza, Programme Coordinator for World Food Programme; Udo K. Janz, Director of UNHCR Office in New York; Israel Klug, Project Coordinator of PAA Africa Programme; Minister Counsellor Nuria Mohammed, Permanent Mission of Ethiopia to the United Nations, H.E. Ambassador Antonio de Aguiar Patriota, Permanent Representative of Brazil to the United Nations; Florika Fink-Hooijer, Policy Director of ECHO; Martin Shearman, Ambassador for Development and Human Rights, UK Department for International Development; H.E. Ambassador Michael Grant, Deputy Permanent Representative of Canada to the United Nations; Jordan Ryan, Assistant Administrator of UNDP; Scott Paul, Humanitarian Policy Advisor of OXFAM; Hansjoerg Strohmeyer, Chief of Policy Development and Studies Branch of UN OCHA
Location: Conference Room 5, United Nations HQ, New York
Date: 24 June 2014
Written By WIT representative: Harrison Chung
Edited by WIT representative: Sophia Griffiths-Mark 

 

Effective Humanitarian Assistance

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A panel about the future of humanitarian affairs was convened to discuss methods and strategies towards achieving greater inclusiveness, coordination, interoperability, and effectiveness in humanitarian aid. H.E. Mr. Dabbashi underlined the importance of the dialogue, commenting on how increased humanitarian threats are dangerously stretching the finite number of humanitarian resources available.

Ms. Pizon focused on the importance of local leaders in disaster intervention. If coordination mechanisms work on both an international and local level, a damaged community can be much more resilient. Ms. Georgieva emphasized the different aspects of operational effectiveness, such as the swift deployment of capacities, the coordination of a joint-assessment strategy, and the cohesive interoperability of all sectors. But Ms. Georgieva also stated that this operational effectiveness can only take us so far. Efficient and productive policies, such as those developed for food assistance, are the difference between helping and further damaging a disaster stricken community. While pumping free food and crops into a disaster area may meet short term needs, it kills the local markets, weakening the society’s capacity to be self-sufficient in the future.

Dr. Sani-Sidi continued the conversation by championing Nigeria’s National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA). NEMA’s departments are categorized into areas for both risk reduction and emergency response, which work in tandem to ensure long term capacity building and prompt response in times of crisis. To close the panel, Mr. Fisher brought attention to the importance of understanding the context of ‘at risk’ countries. As an international community, it is crucial to understand not only the capacities of the country of concern, but also the government situation, the strengths and weaknesses of their institutions, the rule of law, the fiscal management, and all of the other developmental issues that can exacerbate or mitigate the emergency. The effectiveness of response mechanisms is directly dependent on understanding the state of the country, as different situations are more conducive to different methods of humanitarian aid. 

Meeting Title: Panel discussion on “Effective humanitarian assistance”
Speakers: Chair H.E. Mr. Ibrahim O. Dabbashi (Libya), Vice-President of the Economic and Social Council; Moderator Ms. Valerie Amos, Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator; Ms. Kristalina Georgieva, European Commissioner for International Cooperation, Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Response; Dr. Muhammad Sani-Sidi, Director-General, National Emergency Management Agency, Nigeria; Mr. H. Halil Afsarata, Head of the Strategy Development Department at the Prime Ministry, Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD), Turkey; Mr. Nigel Fisher, United Nations Regional Humanitarian Coordinator for Syria; Ms. Inday Pizon, Executive Director, Regional Development Incorporated, National Coalition of Rural Women/PKKK, Philippines; Ms. Barbette Badocdoc, Media and Networking Officer, Initiatives for Dialogue and Empowerment through Alternative Lawyering Services (IDEALS), Philippines
Location: ECOSOC Chamber, United Nations, New York 
Date: 24 June 2014
Written By WIT Representative: Zachary Halliday
Edited by WIT Representative: Sophia Griffiths-Mark 

Trends in Humanitarian Financing: do resources meet the needs?

UntitledHumanitarian crises and needs in 2013 was extraordinary, the level of international humanitarian response rose to a record high of US$22 billion. As crises developed or emerged over the year, the numbers of affected people fluctuated. In light of that, financial resources are increasingly stretched. At the United Nations panellists gathered to discuss and identify how resources can more effectively channelled in order to meet the needs of affected civilians.

H.E. Ambassador Nusseibeh commenced the meeting by highlighting 2012 as a year of “recurring disasters” during which there was a stark change in the number of high-level humanitarian crises in 2013. Millions of people were affected by various crises, which stretched international response and funding. In particular adversity in South Sudan, Sudan and Yemen affected hundreds of thousands of people and called for significant international humanitarian response.

Ms. Swithern emphasised that South Sudan and Syria now appear at the top of the list of nations in desperate need of humanitarian assistance. This is due to the ongoing conflict driven crises in these respective countries. The United States, European Union, United Kingdom, Turkey and Japan were the largest government donors in 2013. He stressed that even though the international humanitarian response has increased significantly, it is still not enough to fully meet the ever-growing global needs.

Mr. Strohmeyer briefly explained the importance of looking at various funding mechanisms and developing multi-year strategies as funding moves through chains of transaction in varying lengths and complexity. He also stated that in order to improve the effectiveness of resources, it is necessary to provide independent, transparent and accessible information.

It is clear that national and local NGOs form an essential part of the humanitarian response. Ms. Genel introduced a Turkey-based NGO ‘Support to Life’, which works internationally on humanitarian principles. Despite NGO assistance Ms. Genel emphasised that domestic government resources are substantial and should continue to be the key driver of long-term development.

Meeting Title: Trends in humanitarian financing: do resources meet the needs?
Speakers: Ambassador Lana Nusseibeh, Permanent Representative of the United Arab Emirates to the United Nations; Ms. Sophia Swithern, Programme Leader, Global Humanitarian Programme of Development Initiatives; Mr. Hansjoerg Strohmeyer, Chief, Policy Development and Studies Branch (OCHA); Ms. Sema Genel, Director, Support to Life (Turkey)
Location: Conference Room C, United Nations HQ, New York
Date: 24 June 2014
Written By WIT representative: Samantha Kong
Edited By WIT Representative: Sophia Griffiths-Mark 

ECOSOC Discusses Social Development and Human Settlements

downloadThe 23rd coordination and management meeting was held at ECOSOC on 12 June. This high panel discussion gathered representatives of CSOD, UN Habitat and CEB to discuss the drafted resolution on social development and human settlements. “Promoting empowerment of people in achieving poverty eradication, social integration and decent work for all is the priority theme”, representative of CSOD said in her introductory statement. She highlighted the critical importance of empowerment in accelerating the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals. In light of that, she stressed that synergies must be created between empowerment policies and the current work to strengthen the three pillars of sustainable development. She repeatedly emphasized the need for increased and effective participation by youth in decision-making processes at all levels, including the post-2015 processes.

Director of UN-Habitat reported the role of UN-Habitat at the global level, which aims at working with a wide range of partners to prepare and consult the post-2015 development agenda and sustainable development goals. It also closely cooperates with international financial institutions and the International Aid Transparency Initiative. She suggested several recommendations on implementing the Habitat Agenda. She pointed out the need of appropriate consideration on the role of urbanization for better implementation of sectorial policies within cities and urban settlements. This would enhance economic productivity and equity, to implement economic empowerment programs that create opportunities for the youth and women.

Ms. Simona outlined the five transformational shifts that are required to drive the universal post-2015 development agenda, including leaving no one behind, putting sustainable development at the core, transforming economics for jobs and inclusive growth, building peace and effective, open and accountable institutions for all and forging a new global partnership. She concluded by highlighting the five critical interlinked elements for the post-2015 development agenda: universality, integration, equality, human rights and data revolution.

Meeting Title: 23rd coordination and management meeting: Social development and human settlements
Speakers: Ms. Sewa Lamsal Adhikari, Chair of CSOD 52; Ms. Simona Mirela Miculescu, Chair of CSOD 53; Director of UN-Habitat, Ms. Simona Petrova, Director of the Chief Executive Board (CEB) Secretariat
Location: United Nations HQ, ECOSOC
Date: 12 June 2014
Written By WIT representative: Samantha Kong

Voices of Women, Children and Youth with Disabilities at the UN

HRWThe moderator, Nancy Maguire started the panel discussion by highlighting the importance to acknowledge that the ‘disability’ group is not like one homogenous group and is subject to different perspectives and experiences on the basis of where they are from.

Ambrose Murangira, then shared his personal experience in Uganda. He highlighted the discriminatory practices from childhood to the community level; and faced these challenges by performing, cooperating with his friends and leading his cause. Teachers are also very important in influencing young people. Apart from disability organizations, it is important that all people take the responsibility of ensuring that the disabled community gets their rights. The post 2015 agenda in his opinion, would give this cause the right platform to be heard.

Andrea Mazzarino shared her research on children with disabilities in Russian and Japanese state orphanages. In the case of Russia, the children are abandoned by the sate. According to UNICEF at least, 305,000 children lived in Russian orphanages, which is 2-5% of Russia ‘s total child population. The children with disabilities are victims of violence, neglect and isolation in Russian orphanages. Although a vast majority of these children have one living parent, due to the doctors stating that the children will never be able to develop like normal children under immense pressure from the society, those parents give up their children. In the case of Japan, 25% of 39000 Japanese children live in state institutions; group homes for independent living and foster care have a disability. The lack of inclusion in the educational system has severed consequences in the overall development of these children.  She recommended, that these children should be provided adequate support from communities, parents and foster parents, collectively and to create independent mechanism to ensure institutionalization is used as the only resort.

Finally Rashmi Chopra, shared her research and study on women and girls with disabilities. Women with disabilities are profoundly vulnerable to abuse and often their choices are not heard and abuses remain hidden. The social stigma and exclusion impacts their multiple rights such as health education and a family life. Chopra highlighted the stories of three women from Zambia and India, respectively. Mary and Charity from Zambia were both victims of HIV AIDS and rape. They were abused by their husbands and got limited schooling. Rekha from India suffered from an intellectual disability. Her mother, without any consent and knowledge from Rekha, sterilized her, to protect her from sexual violence. These cases represent the vulnerability of disabled women and girls to abuse and violence.

Meeting Title: Voices of Women, Children and Youth with Disabilities: from Uganda, Zambia, India, Japan and Russia
Speakers: Nancy Maguire, UNICEF Global Youth Council Member; Ambrose Murangira, Executive director, Uganda National Association of the Deaf; Andréa Mazzarino, ACLS Public Fellow, Europe & Central Asia Division, Human Rights Watch; Rashmi Chopra, Fellow, Disability Rights Division, Human Rights Watch.
Date: 11 June 2014
Location: Conference room 5, United Nations Headquarters, New York.
Written by WIT Representative– Aslesha Kaur Dhillon